Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the “Red Planet.“
Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. Olympus Mons is about two and a half times Mount Everest’s height above sea level.
Laika, a stray dog from the streets of Moscow, was selected to be the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into outer space on 3 November 1957.
In November 1957, Laika became the first animal launched into Earth orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight during the upcoming years.
“Laika died within hours from overheating, possibly caused by a failure of the central R-7 sustainer to separate from the payload”.
Spacewar! is a space combat video game developed in 1962 by Steve Russell, in collaboration with Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen, and programmed by Russell with assistance from others including Bob Saunders and Steve Piner.
The game features two spaceships, “the needle” and “the wedge“, engaged in a dogfight while maneuvering in the gravity wellof a star. Both ships are controlled by human players.
“Spacewar is one of the most important and influential games in the early history of video games.”
It was extremely popular in the small programming community in the 1960s and was widely ported to other computer systems at the time.
In 2007, Spacewar was named to a list of the ten most important video games of all time, which formed the start of the game canon at the “Library of Congress”.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction.
Engelbart applied for a patent in 1967 and received it in 1970, for the wooden shell with two metal wheels (computer mouse – U.S. Patent 3,541,541), which he had developed with Bill English, his lead engineer sometime before 1965.
In the patent application it is described as an “X-Y position indicator for a display system”.
Engelbart later revealed that it was nicknamed the “Mouse” because the tail came out the end.
His group also called the on-screen cursor a “bug“, but this term was not widely adopted.
Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) born in San Francisco, California, US was an American photographer and environmentalist.
His black-and-white landscape photographs of the American West, especially Yosemite National Park, have been widely reproduced on calendars, posters, books, and the internet.
Adams initiated the photography group known as Group f/64, along with fellow photographers Willard Van Dyke and Edward Weston.
His first photographs were published in 1921, and Best’s Studio began selling his Yosemite prints the next year.
Adams’s first portfolio was a success, earning nearly $3,900 with the sponsorship and promotion of Albert Bender, an arts-associated businessman.
Adams became interested in piano at age 12, and music became the main focus of his later youth.
The city of Istanbul has been known by a number of different names.
The most notable names besides the modern Turkish name are Byzantium, Constantinople, and Stamboul. Different names are associated with different phases of its history and with different languages.
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire and also of the brief Latin and the later Ottoman empires.
This city can be counted between Europe and Asia.
General Sherman is a giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) tree located in the “Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park in Tulare County”, in the U.S. state of California.
By volume, it is the largest known living single-stem tree on Earth.
While the General Sherman is the largest currently living tree, it is not the largest historically-recorded tree.
The General Sherman Tree measures 103/31-meters around, and soars 275 feet/84 metres into the blue Sierra sky—and it’s still growing.”
Kookaburras are terrestrial tree kingfishers of the genus Dacelo native to Australia and New Guinea, which grow to between 28–42 cm (11–17 in) in length.
The name is a loanword from Wiradjuri guuguubarra, onomatopoeic of its call.
The loud distinctive call of the laughing kookaburra is widely used as a stock sound effect in situations that involve an Australian bush setting.
They are found in habitats ranging from humid forest to arid savanna, as well as in suburban areas with tall trees or near running water.
Even though they belong to the larger group known as “kingfishers“, kookaburras are not closely associated with water.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in “Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas” with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
They are among the world’s highest mountains.
The three highest mountains in the Pamirs core are Ismoil Somoni Peak (known Stalin Peak, and Communism Peak), Ibn Sina Peak (still unofficially known as Lenin Peak), and Peak Korzhenevskaya.
In the Eastern Pamirs, China’s Kongur Tagh is the highest at 7,649 m (25,095 ft).
There are many glaciers in the Pamir Mountains, including the 77 km (48 mi) long Fedchenko Glacier, the longest in the former USSR and the longest glacier outside the polar regions.
Pamir Mountains Covered in snow throughout the year, the Pamirs have long and bitterly cold winters, and short, cool summers.
Shanghai World Financial Center, mixed-use skyscraper in Shanghai, China, that is one of the tallest buildings in the world.
The tower is located in the Pudong district of the city, adjacent to the 88-story “Jin Mao Tower”.
Designed by the American architectural firm of “Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates of New York City”, it has 101 stories and reaches a height of 1,614 feet (492 metres).
The building opened in 2008 after a construction period of 11 years.